- 1 in 10,000 births.
- Presence of hydroureter and hydronephrosis with normal bladder.
- The dilated ureter is tortuous and appears as a collection of cysts of variable size, localized between the dilated renal pelvis and the bladder.
- The etiology is diverse, including ureteric stricture or atresia, vascular obstruction, diverticulum, or ureterocele. Ureteroceles (visible as a thin-walled and fluid-filled small circular area inside the bladder) are usually found in association with a duplex kidney and collecting system. The upper pole characteristically obstructs and the lower one refluxes.
The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes is not increased.
- Detailed ultrasound examination.
- Ultrasound scans every 4 weeks to monitor the evolution of hydronephrosis and assess amniotic fluid volume.
- Standard obstetric care and delivery.
- Postnatal intervention is indicated if the vesico-uretric reflux is associated with abnormal renal function.
- No increased risk of recurrence.